Utah County Birders

Newsletter References


  "Passenger Pigeon" by Nichole Telford

Primary Sources


Craig, Wallace. “The Expressions of Emotion in the Pigeons. III. The Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes Migratorius Linn.).” The Auk, vol. 28, no. 4, 1911, pp. 408–427., doi:10.2307/4071160​


“Pigeons.” Mrs. Rorer's Philadelphia Cook Book: a Manual of Home Economics, by Sarah Tyson. Rorer, Nabu Press, 2010, pp. 200–202, archive.org/stream/mrsrorersphilade00rorerich#page/200/mode/2up.​

“Potted Pigeons: Braised Pigeons: Pigeons Stuffed With Parsley.” Mrs. Lincoln's Boston Cook Book: What to Do and What Not to Do in Cooking, by Mary J. Lincoln, Applewood Books, 2009, pp. 262–263, archive.org/stream/lincolnsbostcook00lincrich#page/262/mode/2up.​

News Articles​

Lee, A. W. “Law Begins to Work: Good Effect of Lacey Bird Law Already Apparent.” Ottumwa Semi-Weekly Courier, 30 Oct. 1900, chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86061214/1900-10-30/ed-1/seq-3/.​

Times, The. “Bird Legislation.” 19 Aug. 1900, chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85034438/1900-08-19/ed-1/seq-1/.​

“Last Carrier Pigeon.” Jackson Citizen Patriot, 8 Sept. 1914, blog.genealogybank.com/end-of-her-kind-martha-the-last-passenger-pigeon-dies.html.​

“The Conquered.” Times-Picayune, 1 Oct. 1914, blog.genealogybank.com/end-of-her-kind-martha-the-last-passenger-pigeon-dies.html​


Pawlick, Thomas F., and Richard Fluke. “Martha: The Last of Her Kind.” American Bird Conservancy, 2018, abcbirds.org/martha-the-last-of-her-kind/. Accessed 2019​

Laws and Acts​

United States, Congress, Migratory Bird Treaty Act. Vol. 703, 1918​

United States, Congress, Lacey Act. 1900​

Secondary Sources​


Yeoman, Barry. “Why the Passenger Pigeon Went Extinct.” Audubon, Audubon, 13 Apr. 2016, www.audubon.org/magazine/may-june-2014/why-passenger-pigeon-went-extinct.​

Greenfieldboyce, Nell. “Why Did The Passenger Pigeon Go Extinct? The Answer Might Lie In Their Toes.” NPR, NPR, 16 Nov. 2017, www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/11/16/564597936/why-did-the-passenger-pigeon-go-extinct-the-answer-might-lie-in-their-toes.​

Zimmer, Carl. “Century After Extinction, Passenger Pigeons Remain Iconic-And Scientists Hope to Bring Them Back.” National Geographic, National Geographic Society, 31 Aug. 2014, news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/08/140831-passenger-pigeon-martha-deextinction-dna-animals-species/​

Blockstein, David. “Passenger Pigeon.” Aplomado Falcon - Introduction | Birds of North America Online, 2002, birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/paspig/introduction.​

Institute, Smithsonian. “The Passenger Pigeon.” Museum Conservation Institute Stain Removal, www.si.edu/spotlight/passenger-pigeon​

Blockstein, David E, and Daniel M Evans. “A Century Later: Lessons Learned from the Passenger Pigeon.” The Ecological Society of America, 2014, esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1890/1540-9295-12.6.315​


Greenberg, Joel. A Feathered River across the Sky: the Passenger Pigeon's Flight to Extinction. Bloomsbury, 2014.​

“The Passenger Pigeon.” Hope Is the Thing with Feathers: a Personal Chronicle of Vanished Birds, by Christopher Cokinos, Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin, 2009, pp. 197–258.​

“The Story of the Passenger Pigeon.” A Green History of the World: Nature, Pollution, and the Collapse of Societies, by Clive Ponting, Penguin, 1993, pp. 168–170, www.eco-action.org/dt/pigeon.html.​

“Passenger Pigeons (Ecopistes Migratorius).” Extinct Birds, by Errol Fuller, Cornell University Press, 2001​


Personal Interview with Billy Fenimore, Dec 19, 2018